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Chapter 1 Resources: The Rise of Industrial Society in the West

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Chapter Overview

After the French Revolution had released the forces of change, they were hard to constrain in Europe and the rest of the world. In 1848 a series of revolutions swept across Europe, and while most of them failed, ultimately their goals would be achieved. Both Italy and Germany were forged into unified nations, and many western nations developed parliamentary systems with more representation. Nationalism spurred fierce rivalries that when combined with technological and military development led to future devastating conflicts. A second revolution also spread across Europe, the Industrial Revolution. The developments in technology and machinery transformed the lives of all within society. Some would achieve great material prosperity, while most were subjected to dehumanizing working and living conditions.

Around 1800 the western world was confronted by the industrial way. It started in Britain, This provided Britain a surplus of money required to create machines and factories. Factories created jobs for people, including women and children The Industrial revolution depended on new inventions like James Watt steam engine that provided more power for power looms and other equipment in the mills. The newly built railroads transported raw materials and exported finished goods quicker.

This was a revolution in society as well. Work was no longer solely on farms, now factory work was an option, This encouraged urbanization as more people moved to the cities for work in the factories. Population grew because workers could support a larger family, lived longer due to better diet, and also due to immigration of people from other countries.New social classes developed from the revolution; there were now industrial middle classes (bourgeois), the factory owners and bankers, and industrial working class (proletariats) the factory workers. New economics theories emerged: classical, liberal, and radical economists. All wanted change from the old system of mercantilism. Classical economists favored laissez faire economics, they believe that through sharing profit was created, and that social security was obsolete because everyone would save privately. They also believe in the Iron Law of Wages; wages should stay slow so the population does not explode. The liberal economics wanted reform, they were the supporters of labor unions and supported suffrage for women. They liked laissez faire but believe that it should apply to production, not distribution, the government should help the population with distribution of the wealth through wage controls and better working conditions. Radical economists wanted to restructure society. The Utopian Socialists came out of the radical economists. They wanted to replace competition within society and replace it with cooperation. They advocated for the equal distribution of wages, with half of the profits going to the workers. Communal living societies were developed under these ideas, to move away from urbanization to create a better living. There were also changes in politics with the Christian Socialists, Revolutionary socialism, and Anarchism.

Change occurred within both expansion of power in other countries and expression of changing ideas within the arts. Colonization was going on at this time as well, in Latin and South America. Most of these countries colonized by European powers were not happy and tried for their independence. Military revolts took place in Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Columbia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil. The new leaders tended to be military leaders from the revolts and ran their countries like they ran their armies, without democracy. There was a change in art at this time as well, the Romantic Movement; it was the age of the novel, art and literature became highly emotional, depicting scenes of nature and new and exotic ideas, not simply religious scenes and ideals. Realism on the other hand, rejected romanticism. They wanted to show life as it was, with real people, not idealized scenes and heroes.

Overall during the Industrial Revolution new ideals, ways of living were introduced came into being. Industrialization spread from Britain to Europe, not to colonies of the Americas. This then paves the road for modernization and slowly to the world we now know.

Key Vocabulary Terms:
  1. Set one: urbanization, Romanticism, conservatism, economic imperialism
  2. Set two: laissez-faire, liberalism, nationalism, revolutionary socialism
  3. Set three: industrial middle class, landed elites, secularization, and Realism

Essay Questions #1. What were the basic features of the new industrial system created by the Industrial Revolution, and what effects did the new system have on urban life, social classes, family life, and standards of living?

Student Response #1

I. Factors which supported Great Britain as the first major leader with the Industrial Revolution

  1. Preexisting large world-wide colonial empire
    1. Sources of raw materials to transport back to Great Britain to be processed (cotton) and turned into products to sell (clothing)
    2. World-wide market to sell excess goods produced by the factories. Sell at other countries below the cost of those countries producing the same goods with their own domestic industry. A Large naval force
    3. Ships to transport raw materials in and export finished goods to other countries
    4. Navy to provide protection for commercial ships as described in point above
  2. Raw resources located in the country
    1. Coal deposits that could be easily mined and used with steam engines
    2. Iron ore deposits that could be easily mined and processed and turned into finished goods: hand tools to export to other countries, construction of railroads, building of steam engines as energy sources for other factories
    3. Small island nation surrounds by water and criss-crossed with canals and rivers made transportation easy
    4. Large labor force in the major cities due to immigration from the countryside in England and other European countries
    5. Sufficient economic capital to building factories and hire workforce

II. Effects of the new industrial system on society

  1. Shift in work site from farm to factory
  2. Supported population growth
  3. Encouraged urbanization
  4. Fostered creation of new social classes
  5. Encouraged development of new economic theories
    1. Classical economists (optimistic view of the Industrial Revolution benefiting all in society)
    2. Liberal economists (reformers of Industrial Revolution excesses and abuses)
    3. Radical economists (revolutionaries who demanded major changes in the structure of society)
  6. Provided impetus for development of new political theories
    1. Christian Socialism
    2. Revolutionary Socialism
    3. Anarchism

Essay Question #2. What were the emerging economic and political theories of this time period and how did they relate to each other? How could they be explained as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution?

Student Response #1

I. The impact of the Industrial Revolution, how it encouraged the development of new economic and political theories.

  1. Classical Economists:
    1. Optimistic view of the industrial revolution benefitting all in society
    2. Laissez faire economic policies
    3. Power of supply and demand
  2. Liberal Economists:
    1. Reformers of industrial revolution excesses and abuses
    2. Laissez faire economic policies should apply to production, not to distribution of wealth
  3. Radical Economists:
    1. Revolutionaries who demanded major changes in the structure of society
    2. Utopian socialists
    3. Equality of distribution of wealth of profit

II. How these economic theories relate to one another

  1. Concerned with drastic social change
  2. Differences in approach still address an expanding material and economic market

III. How these economic theories became reactions to the Industrial Revolution

  1. How things worked, old theory: mercantilism
  2. Prior distribution of wealth shaped feudalism
  3. New distribution of wealth shifts social structure and creates reactionary economic and political theories
  4. The major players who helped along each of theses theories:
    1. Classical: Adam Smith (1723-1798)
    2. Liberal: John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
    3. Radical: Robert Owen (1771-1858)

Optional Internet Exploration. Check these sites out if you want to learn more about the topics
  1. The life of Simón Bolivar, visit http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7609/eng/
  2. Importance of James Watt, visit http://level2.phys.strath.ac.uk/ScienceOnStreets/jameswatt.html
  3. Overview of the Romantic period and the artists of the time, visit http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761573163
  4. Anarchism. This site gives justifications and reasons behind the movement. http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/meltzer/sp001500.html
  5. Art History of the 19th Century. The site links to the WebMuseum? but also to many other web galleries. There are links on architecture as well as art. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHLinks5.html
  6. Charles Darwin life and family are chronicled in this site devoted to him and his work. http://www.aboutdarwin.com/darwin/darwin_01.html
  7. This Classical Music Sources homepage at the Duke University Music Library and Media Center contains a substantial list of composers sorted by musical period. http://www.lib.duke.edu/music/resources/composers.html
  8. The Claude Monet museum includes a biography and links to graphics of Monet's works. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/monet/
  9. The Florence Nightingale museum provides an in-depth look at the life of the famous nurse. http://www.florence-nightingale.co.uk/
  10. Franco-Prussian War. The Modern History Sourcebook includes a war correspondent¿s eyewitness view of the conflict. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1870war1.html
  11. Friedrich Engels biography. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUengels.htm
  12. Karl Marx site includes links to numerous biographies of Karl Marx. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/bio/index.htm
  13. The Russian anarchist Bakunin is explored in depth on the anarchist archives site. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/bakunin/communist/communistbio.html
  14. Napoleon III. The Columbia Encyclopedia online provides an detailed biography of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. http://www.bartleby.com/65/na/Napoleon3.html
  15. Paris Commune library site contains over 1200 images and descriptions of the Paris Commune. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/spec/siege/
  16. Queen Victoria. The Kings and Queens of England website provides an in-depth biography of Victoria and links to her diaries. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page118.asp
  17. Railroads are explored through the National Railway Museum in Britain. http://www.nrm.org.uk
  18. Richard Wagner website provides background on the famous composer. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.html
  19. Seven Weeks War site provides information on the leaders and battles on this short but important war. http://www.lbdb.com/TMDisplayWar.cfm?WID=22
  20. The Great Exhibition of 1851 site describes the Crystal Palace and the exhibition with many graphics. http://spencer.lib.ku.edu/exhibits/greatexhibition/

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-- PsTL1251 - 01 Oct 2008

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